Of Faith in the Holy Trinity
There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body or parts, of infinite power, wisdom and goodness; the maker and preserver of all things visible and invisible. And in unity of this Godhead there are three persons of one substance, power, and eternity—the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost.
Of the Word, or the Son of God, Who Was Made Very Man
The Son, who is the Word of the Father, the very and eternal God, of one substance with the Father, took man’s nature in the womb of the Blessed Virgin; so that two whole and perfect natures, that is to say, the Godhead and manhood, were joined together in one person, never to be divided; whereof is one Christ, very God and very man, who truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, to reconcile His Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but for actual sins of men.
Of the Resurrection of Christ
Christ did truly rise again from the dead, and took again His body, with all things appertaining to the perfection of man’s nature; wherewith He ascended into heaven, and there sitteth until He returns to judge all men at the last day.
Of the Holy Ghost
The Holy Ghost proceeding from the Father and the Son, is of one substance, majesty, and glory, with the Father and the Son, very and eternal God.
Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation
The Holy Scriptures contain all things necessary to salvation so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the name of the Holy Scriptures we do understand those canonical books of the Old and New Testament of whose authority was never any doubt in the church.
The Name of the Canonical Books:
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, The First Book of Samuel, The Second Book of Samuel, The First Book of Kings, The Second Book of Kings, The First Book of Chronicles, The Second Book of Chronicles, The Book of Ezra, The Book of Nehemiah, The Book of Esther, The Book of Job, The Psalms, The Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, or The Preacher, Cantica or Songs of Solomon, Four Prophets the Greater, Twelve Prophets the Less. All the books of the New Testament, as they are commonly received, we do receive and account canonical.
Of the Old Testament
The Old Testament is not contrary to the New; for both in the Old and New Testament everlasting life is offered to mankind by Christ, who is the only mediator between God and man, being both God and man. Wherefore they are not to be heard who feign that the old fathers did look only for transitory promises. Although the law given from God to Moses, as touching ceremonies and rites doth not bind Christians, nor ought the civil precepts thereof of necessity to be received in any commonwealth, yet notwithstanding, no Christian whatsoever is free from the obedience of the commandments which are called moral.
Of Original or Birth Sin
Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam (as the Pelagians do vainly talk), but it is the corruption of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam, whereby, man is very far gone from original righteousness, and of his own nature inclined to evil, and that continually.
Of Free Will
The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own strength and works, to faith and calling upon God; wherefore, we have no power to do good works, pleasant, acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have good will, and working with us, when we have that good will.
Of the Justification of Man
We are accounted righteous before God only for the merit of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, by faith, and not for our own work or deserving. Wherefore, that we are justified by faith, only, is a most wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort.
Of Good Works
Although good works, which are the fruits of faith, and follow after justification, cannot put away our sins and endure the severity of God’s judgment; yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, and spring out of a true and lively faith, insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently known as a tree is discerned by its fruits.
Of Work of Supererogation
Voluntary works – besides, over and above God’s commandments – which are called works of supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety. For by them men do declare that they do not only render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but they do more for His sake than of bounden duty is required; whereas Christ sayeth plainly “When you have done all that is commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants.”
Of Sin After Justification
Not every sin willingly committed after justification is the sin against the Holy Ghost and unpardonable. Wherefore the grant of repentance is not to be denied to such as fall into sin after justification. After we have received the Holy Ghost, we may depart from grace given, and fall into sin, and, by the grace of God, rise again and amend our lives. And therefore they are to be condemned who say they can no more sin as 1long as they live here; or deny the place of forgiveness to such as truly repent.
Of the Church
The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in which the pure Word of God is preached, and the sacraments duly administered according to Christ’s ordinance, in all those things that of necessity are requisite to the same.
The Romish doctrine, concerning purgatory, pardon, worshipping and adoration, as well of images as of relics, and also invocation of saints is a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded upon no warrant of the Scripture, but repugnant of the Word of God.
Of Speaking in the Congregation in Such a Tongue as the People Can Understand
It is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God, and the custom of the primitive church, to have public prayer in the church, or to administer the sacrament, in a tongue not understood by the people.
Of the Sacraments
Sacraments ordained of Christ are not only badges or tokens of Christian men’s profession, but rather they are certain signs of grace and God’s good will toward us, by which He doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith in Him.
There are two sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel; that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord. Those five, commonly called sacraments—that is to say, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction—are not to be counted sacraments of the Gospel; being such as have partly grown out of the corrupt following of the apostles and partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures, but yet do not have the life nature of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper because they have not any visible sign, or ceremony ordained of God.
The sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about; but that we should duly use them. And in such only as worthily receive the same, they have wholesome effect or operation; but they that receive them unworthily, purchase to themselves condemnation, as St. Paul saith, I Cor. 11:29.
Baptism is not only a sign of profession and mark of difference, whereby Christians are distinguished from others that are not baptized; but it is also a sign of regeneration or the new birth. The baptism of young children is to be retained in the church.
Of the Lord’s Supper
The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves one to another but rather is a sacrament of our redemption by Christ’s death; insomuch that, such as rightly, worthily, and with faith receive the same, the bread which we partake of the body of Christ; and likewise the cup of blessing is partaking of the blood of Christ.
Transubstantiation, or the change of the substance of bread and wine in the Supper of our Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ, but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions. The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the Supper, only after a heavenly and scriptural manner. And the means whereby the body of Christ is received and eaten in the Supper is faith.
The sacrament of the Lord’s Supper was not by Christ’s ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up or worshipped.
Of Both Kinds
The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the lay people, for both the parts of the Lord’s Supper, by Christ’s ordinance and commandments, ought to be administered to all Christians alike.
Of the Only Oblation of Christ Finished Upon the Cross
The offering of Christ once made is that perfect redemption, propitiation and satisfaction for all the sins of the whole world, both original and actual; and there is none other satisfaction for sin but that alone. Wherefore the sacrifice of masses, in the which, is commonly said that the priest doth offer Christ for the quick and the dead, to have remission of pain or guilt, is a blasphemous fable and dangerous deceit.
Of the Marriage of Ministers
The ministers of Christ are not commanded by God’s law either to vow the estate of single life, or to abstain from marriage; therefore it is lawful for them, as for all other Christians, to marry at their own discretion, as they shall judge the same to serve best to godliness.
Of the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church
It is not necessary that rites and ceremonies should in all places be the same, or exactly alike; for they have been always different, and may be changed according to the diversities of countries, times, and men’s manners, so that nothing be ordained against God’s Word. Whosoever, through his private judgment, willingly and purposely doth openly break the rites and ceremonies of the church to which he belongs, which are not repugnant to the Word of God, and are ordained and approved by common authority, ought to be rebuked openly, that others may fear to do the like, as one that offendeth against the common order of the church and woundeth the conscience of weak brethren.
Every church may ordain, change, or abolish rites and ceremonies, so that all things may be done to edification.
Of the Rulers of the United States of America
The President, the Congress, the General Assemblies, the Governors, and Councils of State, as the delegates of the people, the rulers of the United States of America, according to the division of power made to them by the Constitution of the United States and by the Constitution of their respective States. And the said States are a sovereign and independent nation and ought not to be subject to any foreign jurisdiction. As far as respects civil affairs, we believe in the duty of Christians, and especially all Christian ministers, to be subject to the supreme authority of the country where they may reside, and to use all laudable means to enjoin obedience to the powers that be; and therefore it is expected that all our preachers and people, who may be under the British, or any other government, will behave themselves as peaceable and orderly subjects.
Of Christian Men’s Goods
The riches and goods of Christians are not common, as touching the right, title, and possession of the same, as some do falsely boast. Notwithstanding, every man ought, of such things as he possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor according to his ability.
Of a Christian Man’s Oath
As we confess that vain and rash swearing is forbidden Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ and James, His apostle, so we judge that Christian religion doth not prohibit, but that a man may swear when the magistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, so it be done according to the prophet’s teaching in justice, judgment, and truth.